Trehalose is a safe natural sugar. Mushrooms, seaweeds, beans, shrimps, beer, and yeast, which are consumed in daily life, have a high content of trehalose [l]. In October 2000, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted trehalose GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) status and approved entry into the U.S. food field; in November 2000, the Joint Expert Committee of Food Additives (JECFA) of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization and the World Health Organization confirmed There is no need to limit the daily allowable intake (ADI) of trehalose; on September 25, 2001, the EU approved trehalose as a new food or food ingredient to enter the market . As a result, trehalose has become a popular emerging food ingredient, especially as a new multi-functional flavoring sugar in baked goods. According to statistics, 46% of trehalose in Japan is used in snacks and baked goods .
1 Available properties of trehalose in baked goods
Trehalose is a sugar formed from 2 molecules of glucose and has a structure similar to maltose, but has more advantages than maltose: (1) The sweetness of excellent sweet trehalose is 45% of that of granulated sugar, the sweetness is moderate, so that the algae After the sugar is blended with the raw materials, it can maintain the original flavor of the conditioned material and maintain low sweetness; (2) Because of its non-reducing nature, trehalose, which does not change color, will not brown even when heated when coexisting with amino acids and proteins. Variation reaction (Maillard reaction), suitable for foods that need to maintain a pure color after baking at high temperature (3) Water retention can maintain the original shape even if the food absorbs moisture, and has the effect of moisturizing the inside of the material but not changing the appearance. Because trehalose has a strong water holding capacity, it can firmly lock the water in the food and prevent the loss of water, but it locks the bound water in the food. There is little free water, and the additional water does not make the food behave. Too much water, regardless of shape and texture, maintains the state of normal moisture. And because trehalose can take away free water, it has the effect of slowing down the growth of bacteria. Therefore, trehalose is very suitable for making foods that are both rich in water and can extend the shelf life; (4) prevent starch aging Because trehalose has the effect of preventing starch aging, it is effective for baked foods, especially foods that require refrigeration; (5) Preventing protein denaturation Trehalose is effective in preventing protein denaturation during high temperature or drying. In baked products containing high protein, it can effectively prevent the deterioration of nutrients; (6) inhibit lipid rancidity. Fats and oils are subject to oxidative decomposition during high-temperature roasting, which can produce undesirable flavor substances such as peroxides and volatile aldehydes. Trehalose interacts with unsaturated fatty acids to protect fats from oxidative decomposition and inhibit qualitative changes caused by acidification of fats and oils.
2 Effect of the use of trehalose in baked goods
The use of trehalose in baked food is mainly to improve the quality characteristics of food. Sugars not only have a sweet taste, they also play an important role in shaping food. Trehalose has a light sweet taste and low sweetness. Therefore, trehalose is used to replace part of the sugar baked products, such as moon cakes, puddings, and cream cakes, which not only reduces the sweetness, but also enhances the flavor of the baked products and produces a good taste. . Trehalose has a strong influence on taste. It can enhance the sense of taste including aroma, relieve and partially mask other unpleasant taste, etc. It can play a vegetable astringent, bitter and partly sour taste in vegetables, fruits, tea, cocoa, etc. often used in baked goods Soothing effect. Not only can it be reconciled with the sweetness of granulated sugar, it can also improve the sweetness quality of aspartame, stevioside and various sugar alcohols, making it close to the sweetness of sucrose.
Trehalose has the functions of inhibiting lipid oxidation, preventing starch aging, stabilizing protein, moisturizing and not affecting the appearance of baked foods with high fat, high starch and high protein, so as to maintain the original state of the food and maintain the freshness of the baked food. Baked goods or desserts that require high-temperature treatment or low-temperature storage are most suitable for use of trehalose as an additive. Avoid the use of antioxidants and other chemical additives, which can improve food safety. Use trehalose to replace part of the sugar baked pastries, with good taste, non-tacky and sweet taste; strong moisturizing, increase moistness and softness; can inhibit oil rancidity, lasting aroma; suitable sweetness, sweet but not greasy, raw flavor Outstanding, long shelf life.
Traditionally, baked goods are high-sugar, high-fat, high-calorie foods. Trehalose is a highly hydrophilic sugar that has a “repelling” effect on fats and oils. It is easy to present fats and oils on the surface of baked goods, enhance the oily feel of products and reduce the amount of fats and oils. Trehalose is difficult to digest and absorb in the human body and will not cause an increase in blood sugar after eating. Trehalose is sugar with crystal water. The calorie consumption of the same amount of trehalose is more than 10% lower than that of maltose. The low sweetness of trehalose makes the baked food easily accepted by modern people. In recent years, in my country's Taiwan and southern coastal cities, trehalose moon cakes and cakes are very popular with consumers. Trehalose can protect the activity of SOD and other components in natural foods such as vegetables and fruits that resist peroxidation and delay aging. SOD is a proteinaceous substance, which is easily deactivated during high-temperature baking. However, the preservation rate of SOD activity in natural vegetables is 77% when trehalose is used to make baked products such as vegetable flakes. These vegetable pastries that maintain both high nutritional content and bright colors can supplement the busy modern people's lack of green vegetables, and are very suitable for the natural and healthy life in the 21st century.
3 Usage of trehalose in baked goods
As a multi-functional food ingredient, trehalose has comprehensive protection properties for food and has a wide range of uses in the new snack market. Its usage is also very simple. According to the characteristics of different baked products, replace part of the sugar in the original formula, or add a certain proportion of trehalose according to the total amount of starch. Such as: (1) trehalose is substituted for 10% to 100% granulated sugar and added to various desserts, cakes, moon cake fillings, bean fillings, fruit fillings, jams, and seasonings to make low-sweetness foods; (2) cakes and bread , Pastry, pizza, etc. and traditional dim sum foods (Ma Yang, bean paste, yolk soup, rice cakes, glutinous rice balls, etc.) by adding 2% to 5% trehalose, can prevent starch aging; (3) pudding, egg tarts and other processed egg products Add 2%-10%<