Trehalose is a safe and reliable natural sugar. Wiggers first extracted it from ergot bacteria in rye in 1832. Subsequent research found that trehalose is widely found in many edible animals, plants and microorganisms in nature. For example, mushrooms, seaweeds, beans, shrimps, bread, beer, and yeast fermented foods that people eat in daily life have high levels of trehalose.
Trehalose is a non-reducing sugar composed of two glucose molecules with α,α,1,1-glycosidic bonds. It has very stable properties and has a magical protective effect on a variety of biologically active substances. Scientists have discovered that the desert plant Selaginella is almost dead during a drought, but it can be miraculously resurrected after encountering water; the alpine plant resurrection grass can withstand the severe cold of ice and snow; some insects do not survive the conditions of high cold, high temperature and dryness Freezing and not dying is the miracle of life created by trehalose in their bodies. Trehalose is therefore known in the scientific community as the "sugar of life". The international authoritative "Nature" magazine published a special article on the evaluation of trehalose in the July 2000 edition, which pointed out: "For many living organisms, the presence or absence of trehalose means life or death."
Trehalose has a magical protective effect on organisms, because trehalose can form a unique protective film on the surface of cells under harsh environmental conditions such as high temperature, high cold, high osmotic pressure, and dry water loss, effectively protecting protein molecules from invariability. Live, thereby maintaining the life processes and biological characteristics of living bodies. Many species that exhibit extraordinary resistance to the harsh environment of the outside world are directly related to the presence of large amounts of trehalose in their bodies. However, other sugars in nature, such as sucrose and glucose, do not have this function. This unique functional characteristic makes trehalose not only an excellent active protective agent for protein drugs, enzymes, vaccines and other biological products, but also an important component of maintaining cell activity and moisturizing cosmetics, and it can also be used as a food prevention and maintenance. The unique food ingredients for fresh food flavor and improved food quality greatly expand the function of trehalose as a natural edible sweet sugar.
1. Physical and chemical properties
1. Sweetness and sweetness
The sweetness of trehalose is 45% of that of sucrose. Its mild and refreshing sweetness and just sweetness are unmatched by sucrose. After trehalose is blended with food materials, its light and low sweetness can highlight the original flavor of food materials.
2. No browning
Trehalose is a non-reducing sugar. When coexisting with amino acids and proteins, it will not brown even if maintained at 121°C for 1 hour. It is very suitable for foods and beverages that require heat treatment or high temperature storage.
3. Heat resistance and acid resistance
Trehalose is the most stable sugar among natural disaccharides, and will not color or decompose even when heated at 121°C and pH 1.5 for 30 minutes.
4. Solubility and crystallinity
The solubility of trehalose is lower than that of sucrose at low temperatures and higher than that of sucrose at high temperatures. It has very good crystallinity, and it does not affect its crystallinity under acidic conditions or when it coexists with other sugars.
5. Low hygroscopicity
Some foods themselves are not hygroscopic, but as soon as sugars such as sucrose are added, the hygroscopicity increases greatly, which affects the flavor and storage period of the food itself. Even if the relative humidity reaches 95%, trehalose will not absorb moisture.
6. High glass transition temperature
Trehalose has a glass transition temperature as high as 120°C. This characteristic, combined with its process stability and low hygroscopicity, makes trehalose an excellent protective agent for high-protein materials and an ideal spray-dried flavor preservative.
1. Prevent starch aging
Since trehalose has an excellent effect of preventing starch aging, it can be used well in rice and noodle foods rich in starch, and this effect is more prominent under low humidity or frozen conditions.
2. Prevent protein denaturation
Trehalose is a good way to prevent protein denaturation when freezing, high temperature or drying. Adding trehalose to various foods containing protein can effectively protect the natural structure of protein molecules and keep the flavor and texture of the food unchanged.
3. Inhibit the production of rotten odor
The main component of the unpleasant rotten smell in fish food is trimethylamine, but fresh fish does not contain trimethylamine. It is produced by microorganisms spoiling during storage. The lower the freshness, the production of trimethylamine more. If trehalose is added before heat processing, it can significantly inhibit the formation of trimethylamine, reduce the generation of unpleasant smell, and maintain the fresh taste of fish. In addition, the odor of chicken and other meat and the main component of the odor of old rice-volatile aldehydes, can also be suppressed by trehalose, so the meat is processed by heating and adding trehalose during rice storage to remove the odor He smells of old rice, keeping the meat and rice fresh.
4. Stable tissue structure and fresh-keeping effect
From the study of the process of cell dehydration, it can be found that trehalose can effectively protect the cell membrane structure and protein, and obviously leave the cell in a suspended state, so as to maintain the structure, texture, color and flavor of animal and plant cells, which is very conducive to dehydration and vegetable thinning. , Meat and fruit products are restored to fresh products after rehydration.
5. Taste correction
Trehalose has a synergistic enhancement effect on the sweetness and flavor of food, can improve the sweetness quality of other synthetic sweeteners such as aspartame, and it can alleviate or partially mask other bad tastes, reduce astringency and bitterness. The sour taste has a soothing effect.
6. Inhibit the decomposition of unsaturated fatty acids
Foods rich in edible oils and fats will produce a pungent odor when they are heated and exposed to light during storage. The more unsaturated fatty acids in fats and oils, the more likely this odor will be, resulting in deterioration of food flavor, loss of nutrition, and even Deterioration and loss of food value. And trehalose has a good inhibition on the decomposition of unsaturated fatty acids in oil components